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A special class of PBG guiding fibers is the hollow core fibers, where the field is confined to an air-filled core. Like other PBG fibers, air-core fibers only guide light in a limited spectral region. Outside this region, the fiber core is anti-guiding. Guiding light in a hollow-core holds many promising applications like high power delivery without the risk of fiber damage, gas sensors or extreme low loss guidance in a vacuum.
Furthermore, this class of fiber has other spectacular properties not found in any other fiber type.
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Due to a negligible contribution from the core material air , the total dispersion of PBG fibers is to a high degree dominated by waveguide dispersion. Here, the field is confined to a solid core and the cladding region typically consists of an array of high index regions embedded in silica material. This filtering effect in combination with a rare-earth-doped core such as Yb makes lasing and amplification possible at new wavelengths with weak fiber gain.
Also, the combination of a doped solid core PBG fiber and special dispersion properties provides a new route for the laser community. Fabrication of PCF, like in conventional fiber fabrication, starts with a fiber preform. This way of creating the preform allows a high level of design flexibility as both the core size and shape as well as the index profile throughout the cladding region can be controlled.
When the desired preform has been constructed, it is drawn to a fiber in a conventional high-temperature drawing tower and hair-thin photonic crystal fibers are readily produced in kilometer lengths. Alternatively, one can create a "photonic bandgap" fiber, in which the light is confined by a photonic bandgap created by the microstructured cladding — such a bandgap, properly designed, can confine light in a lower-index core and even a hollow air core.
Bandgap fibers with hollow cores can potentially circumvent limits imposed by available materials, for example to create fibers that guide light in wavelengths for which transparent materials are not available because the light is primarily in the air, not in the solid materials. Another potential advantage of a hollow core is that one can dynamically introduce materials into the core, such as a gas that is to be analyzed for the presence of some substance.
PCF can also be modified by coating the holes with sol-gels of similar or different index material to enhance its transmittance of light. The term "photonic-crystal fiber" was coined by Philip Russell in — he states that the idea dates to unpublished work in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Applied Physics Letters.
Bibcode : ApPhL.. Journal of Lightwave Technology. Bibcode : JLwT Roberts, F.
Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Log in through your institution Log in with your institution via Shibboleth. More options Purchase digital access to this article Download and print this article for your personal scholarly, research, and educational use. Abstract Photonic crystal fibers guide light by corralling it within a periodic array of microscopic air holes that run along the entire fiber length.
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